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Glossary of Urology Terms

Urology TermsGlossary of Urology Terms

This glossary of urology terms is meant to be a helpful resource as you navigate my website. Please contact me at West Shore Urology, if you need more information regarding your individual medical condition. – Dr. Brian Stork

Balanitis – An infection involving the glands penis.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) – A non-cancerous growth of prostate tissue that can cause a wide variety of voiding problems in men.  Symptoms of BPH can include a slow urinary stream, straining to urinate, incomplete bladder emptying, urinary frequency, and getting up at night to urinate (nocturia).

Bladder – An organ located within the pelvis that stores urine.  When functioning properly, the bladder empties completely during voiding or micturation.

Bladder Cancer – A tumor involving the lining or wall of the bladder.  Blood in the urine, or hematuria, is may be one of the first symptoms of bladder cancer.   Smoking is a known risk factor for bladder cancer.

Bladder Infection (cystitis) – An infection within the bladder commonly associated with symptoms of painful urination (dysuria), urinary frequency, urgency, and blood in the urine (hematuria).

Bladder Reflux (vesicoureteral reflux) – Abnormal movement of urine backwards, toward the kidneys, during voiding or micturition.

Bladder Stone -A calcification within the bladder often caused by poor bladder emptying.

Cystoscopy – A procedure in which a small camera is advanced into the bladder.  This procedure is frequently performed for patients with recurrent urinary tract infections, difficulties urinating, blood in their urine (hematuria), or a history of bladder cancer.

Cytoscopy with Botox Injection – A procedure in which Botox is injected into the bladder wall to treat symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, and urge incontinence.  This procedure is commonly performed in the office with the aid of a small camera.

Cystoscopy with Retrogrades – A procedure in which the bladder is examined with a small camera and contrast dye is placed into the ureters to evaluate the ureters and inner aspect of the kidneys.  This examination can be safely performed even in patients with kidney failure.

Cystoscopy with Stent Removal – A procedure in which a small camera is advanced into the bladder and a grasper is used to remove a previously placed stent from the bladder.

CT Urogram – A detailed evaluation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder that can be performed with or without the  use of contrast dye.  Patients are placed into a large tube where X-rays are taken.  A computer then organizes the X-rays into a series of detailed anatomic images.  A CT Urogram is often use to evaluate patients who have blood in their urine (hematuria), kidney stones, or bladder or kidney masses.

Dysuria – Burning or pain with urination.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) – A treatment for kidney stones in which sound waves are used in an attempt to break stones into small pieces that can be more easily passed.

Glands Penis – The head of the penis.

Hematuria – Blood in the urine that can be seen with the eyes (gross hematuria), under a microscope (microscopic hematuria) or detected on a strip of test paper (hematuria by dipstick analysis).

Hydrocelectomy – A procedure in which a fluid containing sac around the testicle is removed or repaired.

Hydronephrosis – An abnormal build up of urine within the kidney often caused by a blockage within the urinary tract.

Incontinence – The involuntary loss of urine.  There are many different types of incontinence including stress, urge, and overflow to name a few.

Interstitial Cystitis – a painful bladder syndrome that often presents with symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, suprapubic pain and, in women, pain with intercourse or dysparunia.

IVP – A functional test of the the kidney that involves the use of contrast dye. This test is often used to assess for urinary stones or to evaluate for blockages in the urinary tract.

Kidney – A pair of organs located in the back of the abdomen that help the body process wastes in the form of urine. The kidneys also serve an important role in regulating blood pressure and maintaining fluid balance.

Kidney Cancer – Any type of cancer that involves the kidney.  The most common types of cancer that effect the kidney are renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma.  Less frequently, cancers from other sites in the body can metastasize to the kidney.

Kidney Infections (pyelonephritis) – A type of urinary tract infection that involves the kidney.   Pyelonephritis is commonly associated with symptoms of fever, flank or abdominal pain, and malaise.

Kidney Stone (nephrolithiasis) – A calcification or stone somewhere within the kidney.

MAG-3 Lasix Renogram – A functional study of the kidneys performed with a trace radioactive substance that gives important information about the function and drainage of the kidneys.

Percutanous Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS) – PTNS is a therapy used to help patients with symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency and urge incontinence.   The procedure involves the placement of a very tiny needle electrode which is used to stimulate the tibial nerve.  This procedure is typically performed by Ann Welbes in our continence clinic.

Peripheral Nerve Examination (PNE) – This procedure is performed to evaluate if patient with symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, and urge or fecal incontinence might benefit from InterStim Therapy.

Phimosis – An inability to retract the foreskin to expose the glands penis.

Pnematuria –  The passage of air out of the urethra with urination.

Prostate – A reproductive gland present only in men.  The prostate is also part of the urinary tract in men.  When a man urinates, urine travels though the inside of prostate (prostatic urethra) as it exits the bladder and enters the urethra.

Prostate Cancer – A common type of cancer in men that originates from the prostate.

Prostate Infection (prostatitis) – An infection involving the prostate.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test – PSA is a protein made by prostate cells that can be measured with a blood test.  This test is used to both screen men at risk for developing prostate cancer and to follow men who are known to already have prostate cancer.

Radical Prostatectomy – Surgical removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles with or without removal of the pelvic lymph nodes.

Renal Ultrasound – An evaluation of the kidneys and surrounding tissues that does not involve the use of X-rays.  This test is frequently used to look for urinary blockages, stones, or tumors.  The test is also frequently used in pregnancy to avoid radiation exposure to the fetus.

Robotic Partial Nephrectomy – Laparoscopic removal of a kidney tumor with the aid of the da Vinci Surgical System.

Robotic Prostatectomy – Laparoscopic removal of the prostate and seminal vesicles with the aid of the da Vinci Surgical System.

Robotic UPJ Obstruction – Laparoscopic repair of a blockage between the kidney and the ureter performed with the aid of the da Vinci Surgical System.

Scrotal Ultrasound – An evaluation of the testicles and surrounding tissues using ultrasound.  This test can also be used to evaluate the blood flow to the testicles.

Seminal Vesicles – A pair of reproductive organs located behind the prostate.

Spermatocelectomy – A procedure in which a fluid containing sac around the epididymis is removed or repaired.

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Testicles – A pair of male reproductive organs within the scrotum that produce sperm and manufacture testosterone.

Testicular Cancer – A type of cancer within one or both testicles.  Testicular cancer can be primary (originating from within the testicles) or metastatic (originating from another organ system).

Testicular Infection (orchitis/epididymitis) – An infection involving the testicle (orchitis) or a small organ behind the testicle (epididymitis).

Testopel –  Small testosterone replacement pellets that are placed under the skin with with the aid of a local anesthetic.

Transrectal Ultrasound and Biopsy – A procedure in which a small ultrasound probe is placed into the rectum in order to visualize and measure the prostate.  The ultrasound device helps the physician target areas within the prostate for sampling or biopsy.

Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP) – A procedure for men with symptomatic prostatic enlargement in which a portion of the prostate is removed or resected, through the  the urethra, with the aid of a camera.

Urethra – A tube which transports urine out of the body in men and women.  In men, the urethra also transports semen.

Ureter – A small, thin tube that carries urine from the kidney and into the bladder.

Urethral Infection (urethritis) – An infection involving the urethra.

Ureteropelvic Junction (UPJ) Obstruction – A blockage of urine flow from the kidney at the point in which it normally enters the ureter.

Ureteral Stent – A plastic tube, placed inside the body, that helps temporarily drain urine from the kidney to the bladder.  Ureteral stents are often placed to help manage stones or other blockages within the urinary system.  They are also frequently placed following ureteroscopy.  Patients with a ureteral stent may notice increase symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency, blood in the urine (hematuria), and voiding discomfort as a result of having  the stent.

Ureteroscopy – A procedure in which, under an anesthetic, a small camera is advanced into one or both ureters.  This procedure is often used along with the holmium laser to treat stones in the kidney or ureter.  Patients often are left with a temporary ureteral stent following ureteroscopy.

Urethral Stricture – A narrowing anywhere along the course of the urethra.

Urinary Catheter (Foley catheter) – A tube used to transport urine outside the body.

Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) – A procedure in which contrast dye is placed into the bladder through a catheter.  This test is frequently used to evaluate for reflux in young children or, less frequently, to evaluate the junction between the bladder and urethra following robotic prostate surgery.

XPS Greenlight Laser Therapy – A surgery for men with symptomatic prostatic enlargement in which the obstructing portion of the prostate is vaporized, through the urethra, with using a camera and a laser.

They certainly give very strange names to diseases. – Plato

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